التقنية

التقنية الجديدة التي ستحدد ملامح المدن في العقد المقبل

شكلت المدن على مر العصور المركز الرئيسي للتجارب التكنولوجية، حيث قام سكان المدن بصياغة هذه التقنيات من خلال استخداماتها العديدة. ومازالنا نرى البصمات الجذابة والبرّاقة لتقنيات ظهرت خلال السنين الماضية: كقنوات المياه، وأكشاك الهواتف الثابتة؛ ناهيكم عن ذكر الأضرار الجسيمة الناتجة عنها أيضاً كالدخان الصادر من السيارات.

أما الموجة التكنولوجية الحديثة التي ستحدد ملامح السنوات العشرة المقبلة، فستتضمن بشكلٍ أساسي البرامج عوضاً عن الأجهزة. حيث ستغير هذه البرامج الطريقة التي نعمل، نلعب ونعيش بها في بيئتنا المحيطة ومدننا (مدن القرميد والنار).

وعند استخدام هذه التقنيات الفريدة في تطوير منتجاتنا وتجاربنا، فسنجد أن كلاً منها ستسهم في التأثير على سرعة التغيير التي سنشهدها في المدن، بشكلٍ منفصلٍ ومتميز (وكما يمكنكم التوقع مما تشاهدونه في عصرنا الحالي، فإن اسماء كافة التقنيات الحديثة سيتم اختصارها بحرفين فقط، أو على الأقل كل التقنيات الموجودة في مقالنا، لذلك دعونا نطلق عليها تقنيات الحرفين).

الجيل الخامس من شبكة الاتصال اللاسلكية بالإنترنت (5G)

تعتبر شبكة الاتصال اللاسلكية (5G) في الوقت الراهن عبارة مصطلح تسويقي (أو كما يقال حبر على ورق، وحلم نصبو إليه) ولكن لا أحد يستطيع إنكار الاستهلاك الكبير لخاصية نقل البيانات، والحاجة الدائمة للانترنت، حيث ستتطلب كل التقنيات الجديدة ميزة الاتصال اللاسلكي الذي يتمتع بسرعة عالية وانتشار واسع.

وبعد قيامنا ببعض الدراسات البسيطة على استخدام شبكات الاتصال وتزايد الضعط عليها كل عام، نتوقع تضاعف الطلب على ميزة نقل البيانات في العقد المقبل لألف ضعف من الوقت الحالي.

حيث نحتاج إلى تكثيف تواجد شبكات الاتصال ونقل البيانات في السنين القادمة، بهدف تلبية هذا الطلب المتزايد. مما يتتطلب الانتقال من تقنيات (microcell) إلى تقنية (small cells) التي تغطي الحي بأكمله، ووصولاً إلى (femtocells) و(picocells) التي تتمتع بالسّرعات العالية والاتصال المتزامن مع الإعدادات الشخصية والمنزلية (وكشرح سريع فإن التقنيات سابقة الذكر هي عبارة عن شرائح توضع في الهواتف وأجهزة الاتصال تختلف عن بعضها بسرعة العمل، حجم المساحة المتأثرة وعدد الأجهزة الأقصى الذي يستطيع الأرتباط بها).

ويمكننا القول بصراحة أن الاتصال بالانترنت (عرض النطاق الترددي) أصبح دون شك شريان الحياة الرئيسي في المدن حيث تعادل أهميته، أهمية الماء والطرق الجيدة أو حتى الكهرباء التي دعمت إزدهار المدن في الماضي. وتشكل هذه التقنية حجر الأساس لجميع أنواع التقنيات الأخرى. ونأكد لكم أن إمكانية الاتصال بشبكة الإنترنت بسهولة وسرعة، هي ميزة ستجدونها في كل مكان بالمدن الرئيسية في المستقبل.

الرؤية الحاسوبية (CV)

ستعتبر أجهزة الفيديو التي تعمل كجهاز استشعار، من أهم وأكثر الأدوات إثارة للجدل بين جميع أجهزة الاستشعار المتوفرة. حيث أنها ستساعد على فهم كيفية عمل المدن خلال العقد المقبل.

كما أن الرؤية الحاسوبية (النظام البصري للمدن) ستفسح المجال أمام نطاق واسع من الاحتمالات، وتوفر مجموعةً واسعةً من طرق الاستخدام الممكنة، حيث أنها ستساعد بتوفير معلومات عن الكثافة السكانية وأنماط الاستخدام، وسرعة حركة المرور، وكيفية استخدام الموارد.

وبالتأكيد كل التقنيات الحديثة ستترافق مع مخاوف عديدة، وتحديداً على خصوصية المستخدم. ولكن بوجود شركات رائدة مثل “Intel” التي تستعمل  إجراءات حماية مشددة على الأجهزة، وشريحة الكترونية تحتوي على عدد كبير من التفاصيل التعريفية، والتي تنتجها شركة “Movidius“. مما يعزز ثقتنا بالوصول إلى طرق توفر حماية الخصوصية.

وتستطيعون القيام بحساب عدد الكاميرات الكبير المنتشرة في المدن، حيث أنها تتواجد في كل متجر، وسيارة أجرة، وبحوزة كل شرطي، كما أنها منتشرة على كل زاوية في كل شارع؛ وهنا يمكننا القول أن التغيير سيحدث وفق مبدأ استبدال الإنسان الذي يقوم بتقييم التسجيلات في الوقت الراهن ليحل مكانه الحاسوب الذي يعمل على معالجة الصور.

ستحدث عملية الابتكار عندما نتمكن من مشاركة هذه البيانات التي أنتجها الحاسوب بأمان وخصوصية في جميع أنحاء المدينة بهدف تشجيع الإبداع المدمج الجديد. وعلى سبيل المثال، تستطيع الرؤية الحاسوبية أن تدعم إنشاء خريطة حديثة ثلاثية الأبعاد للمدينة والتي يمكن استخدامها في توجيه المركبات الذاتية لكي تتجنب الأطفال الذين يلعبون في الشارع، وتزويد المدينة بمخططات الشقق السكنية مع بيانات حالية للموارد المستخدمة، أو مساعدة  أصحاب الأعمال التجارية على فهم اتجاهات العملاء وإنشاء خدمات وعروض تلبي رغباتهم.

فإذا قامت تقنية (5G) بتوفير قاعدة الاتصال بالشكل الذي يساعد المدن، عندها ستوفر الرؤية الحاسوبية (CV)  إدراكاً حقيقاً لما يجري داخل المدن .

الواقع المختلط (MR)

نطلق تسمية الواقع المختلط على عملية إنشاء واقع جديد عن طريق دمج بيئة افتراضية مع بيئة واقعية وبيئة معززة لتوفير روافد رقمية تدمج بين الأجسام الحقيقية (المادية) والرسومات الحاسوبية. بهدف إنتاج تجارب غنية بأفضل الميزات الفيزيائية والرقمية. يحتوي الواقع المختلط على احتمالات لا متناهية مستمدة من جميع التقنيات الخمسة التي سنذكرها هنا، وعلى الأرجح سيشكل البديل الحتمي لأجهزة الهواتف المحمولة.

سيظهر التأثير المذهل للواقع المختلط في العديد من المجالات. وتتضمن البضائع الافتراضية التي تخفف الضغط على الموارد لترفد العالم بالترفيه وفرص العمل والتعليم. وستتحول إلى مجموعات طبيعية وسلسة من شبكة الانترنت والبنى التحتية المادية للمدينة و المجتمع، وذلك عن طريق مساعدة شركات مثل “Samsung” و”Google ” و”Magic Leap” واستخدام الوسائط والتقنيات المستعملة في ” Google Glass” و”Pokémon Go”.

تخيل إمكانية تغيير بنية مدينة بخطواتٍ معدودة، أو توفير بعض معلوماتك الخاصة لجهات محددة ضمن ظروف معينة، كتوفير معلومات عن حالتك الإجتماعية على صفحات المواعدة، أو فصيلة دمك إلى جانب معدل ضربات قلبك لأول مسعف يستجيب لحدوث طارىء.

المركبات الآلية (AV)

تقوم السيارات التي تجاوز عددها المليار سيارة، بتخفيض قيمة البنية التحتية بشكل مستمر. وذلك لأنها عبارة عن مليارات الدولارات المنتشرة في الشوارع والتي لا تستخدم إلا جزءاً من قدراتها حتى في حالات الاستخدام الأمثل للسيارات، والذي يحدث لمدة قصيرة وفي حالات نادرة منها. أي عندما تسير السيارة وهي محملة بما يقارب سعتها حسب ملف الأداء الخاص بها.

 ستحقق هذه البرمجيات، معدل التغيير الأضخم في المدن خلال العقد المقبل.

لقد خصصنا للسيارات مليارات الأقدام المربعة من الأراضي العقارية الرئيسية حول العالم، إلا أن المركبات ذاتية القيادة ستغير فكرة امتلاك السيارة بهدف الوصول إلى وجهتك، حيث أنها ستقوم بتغيير جذري على الطريقة التي ندير بها تموين البضائع وتسليمها؛ وستطال التغييرات أحجام المركبات، بالإضافة لتركيب أجهزة التوجيه الذكي للسيارات، ما سيؤدي إلى اختلاف طرق السفر التقليدية واستخدام صحيح للمساحات بشكلٍ جذري؛  بدءاً من استخدام طائرة توصيل الطرود بدون طيار (تفقد معرض أمازون لطيران أو معرض star ship)، إلى الباصات المتناهية الصغر التي تجعل من تجربة السفر أكثر فاعلية وبأسعار زهيدة، وصولاً إلى المركبات الفردية ذكية وصغيرة وسهلة الاستخدام (وصدقوني أن هذه التقنيات رائعة وتستحق البحث عنها على الإنترنت ومشاهدة ما تستطيع أن تقوم به).

الذكاء الاصطناعي (AI)

يدمج العقل هذه التقنيات المتطورة مع بعضها لجعلها أدوات فعّالة، ونحن هنا لا نتحدث عن الروبوتات التي تقوم بأخذ الطلبات أو أجهزة الكمبيوتر التي نحتاج إلى برمجتها بكل التفاصيل، بل نتحدث عن بحرٍ واسعٍ مقارنة بها.

يتيح لنا الذكاء الاصطناعي (AI) القدرة على “الاستعمال بحسب الأهداف” فنلقم النظام بالمهمات التي نريد إنجازها، وأثناء أداءه للمهمات، نقدم له المساعدة التي يحتاجها، ونصحح له مساره.

تتيح الحوسبة السحابية القدرة على قياس الأنظمة التعليمية بشكل هائل في أي مجال، بالإضافة إلى الحفاظ على الاستجابة من بين مليارات التفاعلات على مستوى عالي الدقة عبر المعالجة النهائية داخل الجهاز. وتعتبر تقنية الذكاء الاصطناعي (AI) من أكثر التقنيات التي لا يمكن التنبؤ بما ستصبح عليه أو تصل إليه، من بين مجموع كبيرة من التقنيات الحديثة.

وتتميز تقنية الذكاء الاصطناعي (AI) بالقدرة على ربط الأمور من أجل  مساعدتنا في حل القضايا الإشكالية الكبيرة منها والصغيرة، ومواجهة التحديات الشخصية. كما يمكننا عبر استخدام تقنية الذكاء الاصطناعي (AI)، الوصول للاستفادة القصوى من مواردنا، وحل القضايا بشكل عادل، ومنع وقوع الجرائم. بالإضافة إلى استخدام أفضل الطرق لإنجاز الأعمال، وإيجاد شريك الحياة أو تعديل جدول الأعمال الخاص بك حتى يتناسب مع نمط حياتك المطلوب.

وبالطبع، تتواجد العديد من تقنيات “المادية” المذهلة، ومنها الطابعة الثلاثية الأبعاد وتقنيات الإسكان الصغيرة، إلا أننا نعتقد أن هذه التقنيات البرمجية الواقعية ستقود إلى أكبر معدلات التغير في المدن على امتداد العقد المقبل.

تستطيع أن تعتبر هذه التقنيات الخمسة التي قمنا بذكرها، أنها تقنيات العناصر الأساسية التي يمكنك من خلالها بناء مجموعة لا حصر لها من التقنيات؛ فالقوة المطلقة ستصبح متاحة لنا عند دمجنا لهذه التقنيات:

حيث أن السيارات الآلية ستقوم من خلال استخدام شبكة الجيل الخامس للاتصال بتوقع العقبات التي استطاعات أنظمة الرؤية الحاسوبية تحديدها، وبالتالي تجنب هذه العقبات عن طريق استخدام الذكاء الاصطناعي (AI) لمعالجة البيانات والتنسيق مع التقنيات الأخرى في سبيل تحقيق أقصى مستوى من الفعالية الملموسة. (فعلاً مستقبلنا سيكون بين يدي التقنيات المختصرة بحرفين).

ستظهر هذه التقنيات الخمسة في نطاق التطوير في الوقت الراهن، وبعد ذلك ستصبح تدريجيا جزءاً أساسياً في جميع عمليات التفاعل التي نقوم بها فيما بيننا وبين المدن التي نسكنها خلال السنوات 10 المقبلة.

التقنية الجديدة التي ستحدد ملامح المدن في العقد المقبل
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